Power Assist Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Power Assist Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The battery’s rate of cycle-related capacity degradation decreased by a factor of 2 and and rate of cycle-related impedance degradation, by a factor of 5.9 when exposed to the ultracapacitor-modified profile.

Source: Argonne National Lab and Rochester Institute of Technology, Journal of Power Sources: "Effect of Ultracapacitor-modified PHEV protocol on performance degradation in lithium-ion cells”

A vehicle is considered a hybrid if it utilizes more than one form of onboard energy to achieve propulsion. In everyday applications, that means a hybrid will have a traditional internal-combustion engine and a fuel tank, as well as one or more electric motors and a battery pack. To further and fully define a hybrid, it helps to understand the different degrees of hybridization.

Mild Hybrids: Mild Hybrids are vehicles wherein the electric motor adds thrust to the combustion engine or provides power assistance to the combustion engine. However, purely electric driving is not enabled or allowed.

Full Hybrids: Full Hybrids are vehicles wherein the electric motor not only adds thrust to the combustion engine or provides power assistance to the combustion engine, but also enables and allows purely electric driving.

Start/Stop Yes Yes
Power Assist Yes Yes
Electric Engine Output 10-20kW 15-100kW
Operating Voltage 60-200V 200-600V
Electric Drive No Yes
Regenerative Braking Yes Yes
Engine Downsizing Possible Yes Yes
Fuel Economy Gains 10-20% 20-30%
Cost Medium High
Source: Center for Advanced Automotive Technology

Ultracapacitor Application use within Mild & Full Hybrids:

Maxwell ultacapacitors can absorb and store virtually all the kinetic energy from a braking system. The efficiency and power capability of ultracapacitors translate to more efficient recovery of braking energy. The stored electrical energy in ultracapacitors is then available to assist in acceleration to reduce fuel consumption and accompanying emissions. In mild and full hybrid vehicles, ultracapacitors can reduce battery drain and lengthen battery life. As an added bonus, regenerative braking takes most of the load off mechanical brakes, reducing brake maintenance and replacement expenses.

Examples of ultracapacitor applications in hybrid systems:
Regenerative Energy for propulsion for Mild Hybrids (Ultracapacitor only)
Regenerative Energy for Full Hybrids (Ultracapacitors in combination with batteries)

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