Voltage Sag Mitigation and UPS
Voltage sags, the costliest of all power quality issues, are caused by a number of reasons including distribution line faults, large load additions within a utility service area, and discrete customer load additions such as additional motor starting.
Without proper mitigation, commercial and industrial facilities face high risk of lost production and manufacturing waste, lower workforce efficiency, and risk of damage to sensitive manufacturing equipment.
Modern industrial plants with sensitive loads such as sophisticated PLCs, adjustable speed drives, laser manufacturing equipment, robotics, computers, and information technology equipment are increasingly vulnerable to voltage disruptions falling outside of ANSI C.84.1, CBEMA, ITIC, and SEMI-10 specifications. In many manufacturing processes, loss of only a few vital pieces of equipment may lead to a full shutdown of production. A single incident may result in economic damage in the tens to hundreds of thousands of dollars which can add up to millions over the course of a year.
Utility consumers, especially process-related manufacturing plants, information services, financial, and telecommunications businesses, all demand high quality, reliable power to operate electronic devices. Stringent voltage and frequency control requirements specified and required by utilities, PUCs, independent standard organizations, and NERC ensure the integrity of delivered power and reliability. Advanced energy storage with ultra-fast response times are used to ensure real time power quality in case of power quality events.
A power quality event can be a deviation as small as 10% to over 90% of nominal voltage. Larger deviations are observed as increased renewable energy is interconnected to utility grids, with a greater number of momentary and temporary voltage sag events. Implementation of dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) are useful for sub-cycle to second duration outages, however, there is growing need to cope with longer dips and larger loads. According to a study commissioned by Electric Research Power Institute (EPRI), in the US alone power quality phenomena cost between $15 to $24 billion per year.1
Maxwell ultracapacitor storage can augment DVR or act as a UPS to provide critical additional voltage compensation in the cycles to minute time regime to ride through power quality events, or provide support for momentary and temporary interruptions. The products are readily scaled to ensure appropriate event coverage, injecting real power as needed to support facility, microgrid and utility load and mitigate the risk of costly downtime.
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1The Cost of Power Disturbances to Industrial & Digital Economy Companies – Prepared for EPRI (CEIDS) by Primen, 2001
- Response time: Maxwell ultracapacitor systems can deliver stored energy at full power in the cycles timeframe and do not need meaningful recharge time as does a battery or flywheel.
- Capex reduction: Maxwell ultracapacitor based systems are 2-3x less expensive than batteries to address voltage sag as batteries need to be oversized to meet power and lifetime requirements.
- Footprint: The high power performance of ultracapacitors enables a significant reduction in storage system footprint versus battery UPS systems.
- Long operating life and opex reduction*: Maxwell ultracapacitor technology provides a 12 to 15 year lifetime with no replacement cycles. Ultracapacitors are electrostatic devices designed to be repeatedly charged and discharged in full cycles or micro-cycles. Maxwell’s ultracapacitors have demonstrated over 1 million benchmark charge-discharges. They do not require yearly maintenance as they do not have mechanical moving parts.
- Hybrid systems: Maxwell ultracapacitor systems can be deployed with batteries to provide additional services, such as peak shaving and energy time shifting. In this configuration, the ultracapacitors additionally act as a buffer on the battery to preserve battery lifetime. This reduces the number of battery replacement cycles to lessen opex.
*Results may vary. Additional terms and conditions, including the limited warranty, apply at the time of purchase. See the warranty details and datasheet for applicable operating and use requirements.
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